Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Formula untuk Present Perfect Continuous Tense adalah:

Subject + (has/have) + been + (verb1+ing)+ object + modifier
Contoh:

Farmers in Jati Bali have been growing rice crops since 1970. (Petani-petani di Jati Bali telah menanam padi sejak tahun 1970).
Some students have been conducting research on vegetative plant propagations for two months. (Beberapa siswa telah melakukan penelitian pada perbanyakan tanaman vegetatif selama 2 bulan).
Transpiration has been starting to increase since three hours ago. (Transpirasi telah mulai meningkat sejak tiga jam yang lalu).
Penggunaan Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present perfect continuous tense digunakan untuk menyatakan bahwa kejadian/aktivitas terus terjadi/dilakukan mulai dari waktu tertentu di masa lampau sampai sekarang (now).

Note:

Walaupun polanya sedikit berbeda, kalimat dalam pola present perfect continuous tense maknanya sama dengan kalimat dalam pola Present Perfect Tense kategori yang ketiga.
Contoh:

Pada Present Perfect Tense kategori ketiga diberikan contoh kalimat sebagai berikut:

I have lived in this house for nine years.
We have studied English since a month ago.
He has married her for nineteen years.
Mr. Johnson has worked in the same place since 1980.
She has waited for her boyfriend for an hour.
Kelima contoh kalimat di atas dapat dinyatakan dalam Present Perfect Continuous Tense, menjadi:

I have been living in this house for nine years.
We have been studying English since a month ago.
He has been marrying her for nineteen years.
Mr. Johnson has been working in the same place since 1980.
She has been waiting for her boyfriend for an hour.
Penggunaan For dan Since

Penggunaan for dan since pada tensis ini sama dengan pada Present Perfect Tense.

Pada contoh di atas, jika for diganti dengan since, atau sebaliknya, since diganti dengan for, maka kalimatnya menjadi:

I have been living in this house since 2000. (Saya telah tinggal di rumah ini sejak tahun 2000).
We have been studying English for a month. (Kita telah belajar bahasa Inggris selama 1 bulan).
He has been marrying her since 1990. (Dia telah mengawininya sejak tahun 1990).
Mr. Johnson has been working in the same place for twenty-nine years. (Pak Johnson telah bekerja di tempat yang sama selama 29 tahun).
She has been waiting for her boyfriend since an hour ago. (Dia telah menunggu pacarnya sejak sejam yang lalu).
Negative Form

Bentuk negatif kalimat dalam Present Perfect Tense dibuat dengan menambahkan not setelah auxilary has/have, seperti yang terlihat dalam formula berikut,

Subject + (has/have) + not + been + (verb1+ing)+ object + modifier
Note: (has not) dapat disingkat menjadi hasn’t, sedangkan (have not) dapat disingkat menjadi haven’t.

Contoh:

I have not been living in this house for nine years. (Saya belum tinggal di rumah ini selama 9 tahun).
We have not been studying English for a month. (Kita belum belajar bahasa Inggris selama sebulan).
He has not been marrying her for nineteen years. (Dia belum mengawininya selama 19tahun).
Mr. Johnson has not been working in the same place for twenty-nine years. (Mr Johnson belum bekerja di tempat yang sama selama 29 tahun).
She has not been waiting for her boyfriend for an hour. (Dia belum menunggu pacarnya selama satu jam).
Yes/No Questions

Yes/No Questions untuk Present Perfect Tense adalah sebagai berikut:

(Has/have) + subject + been + (verb1+ing) + object + modifier?
Contoh:

Have you been living in this house for nine years? (Apakah kamu telah tinggal di rumah ini selama 9 tahun?).
Have we been studying English for a month? (Apakah kita telah belajar bahasa Inggris selama 1 bulan?).
Has he been marrying her for nineteen years? (Apakah dia telah mengawininya selama 19 tahun?).
Has Mr. Johnson been working in the same place since 1980? (Apakah pak Johnson telah bekerja di tempat yang sama sejak tahun 1980?).
Has she been waiting for her boyfriend for an hour? (Apakah dia telah menunggu pacarnya selama satu jam?).
Penggunaan already dan yet

Penggunaan adverb already dan yet pada tensis ini pada prinsipnya sama dengan pada Present Perfect Tense.

a. Adverb already dan yet digunakan untuk mempertegas pernyatakan bahwa sesuatu telah atau belum terjadi pada waktu yang tidak spesifik (unspecified time) di masa lampau. Already (telah/sudah) digunakan pada kalimat positif, sedangkan yet (belum) digunakan pada kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya.

Already biasanya diletakkan di antara auxiliary (has/have) dan verb3. Selain itu, already juga dapat diletakkan di akhir kalimat tanpa merubah arti kalimat.

Subject + (has/have) + already + been + (verb1+ing) + object + modifier
Atau

Subject + (has/have) + been + (verb1+ing) + object + modifier + already
Contoh:

I have already been living in this house for nine years.
We have been studying English since a month ago already.
He has already been marrying her for nineteen years.
Mr. Johnson has been working in the same place since 1980 already.
She has been waiting for her boyfriend for an hour already.
b. Adverb yet digunakan pada negative form (kalimat negative) dan interogative form (kalimat tanya), yang biasanya ditempatkan di akhir kalimat, seperti pada formula berikut ini:

Subject + (has/have) + not + been + (verb1+ing) + object + modifier + yet
Contoh:

I have not been living in this house for nine years yet.
We have not been studying English for a month yet.
He has not been marrying her for nineteen years yet.
Mr. Johnson has not been working in the same place for twenty-nine years yet.
She has not been waiting for her boyfriend for an hour yet.

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